In part one of this article, we addressed the columns of Constantinople
This brief article will demonstrate how the Theodosian walls surrounding the city of Constantinople, built by Theodosius...
For ancient civilisations, the erection of monuments—whether they were obelisks or honorific columns—implied, from a symbolic point of view, a correspondence or intersection between the horizontal or earthly/terrestrial and the vertical or heavenly/celestial realms.
It is a truism that for ancient persons, the natural world revealed the sacred. Thus, when the dissociation...
Water has been perceived symbolically since ancient times. In other words, from the activity of water in certain circumstances can be inferred certain phenomena.
Plants, and trees in particular, easily fall into the category of the most common symbolic images in the history of human expression. Why is this so?
The Byzantine period of Greece’s history lasted from 330 AD—when St Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman empire to Byzantium in Thrace and renamed the city after himself, i.e. Constantinople—to the 29th of May, 1453 when the city fell to the Ottoman Turks.
First noted in geographical surveys in 1964, Göbekli Tepe, an archaeological site situated about 15km north-east of the Turkish city of Sanlıurfa, was made famous in the 1990s by German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt.
The previous part of this article accounted for the evolution of the city in the West since the sixteenth century, a period loosely described as ‘modernity’ since it succeeds the medieval period, the Protestant Reformation, and the Renaissance.